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Type 2 Diabetes- Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the processing of normal blood sugar levels in your body. In this condition, the glucose levels in your body get a build-up in your blood. If you are suffering from type 2 diabetes, your body will not produce enough insulin or it may resist insulin. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes mostly diagnosed in middle age or older groups of people. People having prediabetes, in which the normal blood sugar is high but not high enough to be diabetic may get type 2 diabetes if not taken proper care of. To prevent this, getting your A1C level tested is important. A prior diagnosis can help get proper treatment before any serious issue may infer.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

Suffering from type 2 diabetes can limit your body’s ability to use insulin effectively. Due to this, your body has to depend on other energy sources. This chain reaction can cause several symptoms of type 2 diabetes. This disease often gets severe because of its late diagnosis. This is mainly because symptoms of type 2 diabetes are very mild and so remain unnoticed. Getting your blood sugar level checked can be a good choice in such cases.

The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be seeing blur images, feeling hungry every time, loss of weight, feeling thirsty, fatigue, frequent urination, itchiness, lack of energy, difficulty in healing wounds, numbness in your hands or feet. If the blood glucose levels in your body have been high for a long time, there may be symptoms like yeast infections, dark patches on your neck and armpit, pain in the foot. These signs are evidence that your body is becoming resistant to insulin and may have type 2 diabetes. If you notice any of these symptoms, you should immediately see your doctor.

Causes of type 2 diabetes:

Insulin is a hormone which is produced by your pancreas that assists your cells to turn glucose into energy. If you are suffering from type 2 diabetes, the pancreas will produce insulin but the cells are not able to use it as they should. So the pancreas makes more insulin and this can damage its cells. After a time, your pancreas may be unable to produce insulin. When your body is unable to produce insulin, glucose levels rise in your bloodstream. In this case, your body is not able to get proper energy. All these events lead to the cause of type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors of type 2 diabetes:

Certain risk factors can lead to type 2 diabetes-like if your age is over 45, you are having a family history of diabetes, prediabetes, heart diseases, high blood sugar level, obesity, depression, high triglycerides, low HDL(High-density lipoprotein). Moreover, if you smoke or take stress, sleep too little or too much, don’t get involves in any exercise, you might be at risk of type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis:

Blood test for diagnosis:

The only way to prevent getting type 2 diabetes can be a blood sugar level check- up or having an A1C test. A blood test gives information about a person’s normal blood sugar level over a 2 to 3 month period before the test. Having normal A1C levels mean you are not at risk and lump normal blood sugar. If the reading is high that means your blood glucose levels are also high. This increases your risk of having any type of diabetes.

Normal A1C levels :

The normal A1C level is less than 5.7 percent. If you are reading is between 5.7 and 6.4 percent, you are prediabetic. This puts you at risk for developing type 2 diabetes in the future. To prevent having type 2 diabetes you must get your blood sugar level tested every year.

Higher A1C levels:

If your reading of A1C is 6.25% or above, you may be asked for a type 2 diabetes test. If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes or even prediabetes, the doctor may ask you to have a glucose level monitor. He may also ask you to check your blood sugar level on your own.

How to lower score:

Having normal A1C levels can be a boon but if your scores are high, you need to take proper care of yourself. You can lower your A1C by making certain changes to your lifestyle. You must involve yourself in some physical activities, having a proper diet, along with some medication as prescribed by the doctor. if you are already having diabetes and are on some medication, this may cause low blood sugar levels. The medicines that lower the fasting blood sugar levels can also lower the A1C level.

Type 2 diabetes complications:

In type 2 diabetes, the elevated blood sugar levels in your bloodstream can cause certain complications related to the kidney, nerves, skin. High blood sugar in type 2 diabetes can damage your eyes and brain. There are high chances of miscarriages in pregnant women. You could also have complications while sleeping in which your breathing stops and starts while you sleep. You can even fall into depression.

Type 2 diabetes diet:

Type 2 diabetes diet must include the following:

Complex carbohydrates (low glycemic load foods)

Type 2 diabetes diet must include foods that are in their whole food form. The food should be rich in nutrients like fiber, vitamins, and a very small amount of proteins and fats. These nutrients assist in slowing down the absorption of glucose and keep blood sugar levels more stable. Complex carbohydrate foods include brown rice, whole wheat, vegetables, fruits, sweet cut oatmeal.

Green and starchy vegetables:

Vegetables such as squash, potatoes, corn, and vegetables with roots are good sources of nutrients like vitamin C and are also rich in carbohydrates. These vegetables can be the best type 2 diabetes diet when taken and smaller portions. Green vegetables can be eaten as large meals. Their impact on blood sugar level is limited and also has several health benefits. Green vegetables can be a good part of a type 2 diabetes diet as it would make you feel fuller and healthy.

Foods to avoid in type 2 diabetes:

Simple carbohydrates or high glycemic index food should not be included in type 2 diabetes diet. Food such as sugar, white bread, flour, cookies, white potatoes, pastries and sweets, fruit juice, white pasta should be avoided.

Type 2 Diabetes Treatment:

The treatment of type 2 diabetes includes lifestyle changes to manage your blood sugar levels with the help of diet and exercises along with medication.

Healthy eating:

A healthy diet can help you in managing your glucose level. Eating fewer calories and cutting back on refined carbs specifically sweets, adding green and starchy vegetables to your diet, eating foods that are rich in nutrients like fiber and vitamins and having complex carbohydrates can help you in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Click here for diet plan: 8+ food for type 2 diabetes patients

Physical activities:

You must involve yourself in 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Physical activities can include walking, running, swimming, etc. Moreover if you are taking any medication that lowers your blood sugar level, you possibly should eat a snack before a workout.

Blood glucose monitor:

Monitoring your blood sugar levels regularly is very necessary for proper treatment, especially if you are on insulin.


When the lifestyle changes do not work to manage your blood sugar levels, the doctor prescribes you with some medications. Some of the most common type 2 diabetes medicines are DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor, Metformin, etc. You should continue to follow a proper diet and a healthy lifestyle along with these medicines for quick recovery.


Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes seen in today’s time. Because of its unnoticed symptoms, it’ diagnosis takes time and the condition becomes more severe. Although type 2 diabetes can be treated when diagnosed earlier. For early diagnosis, you should always have a blood glucose monitor. Moreover, stick to a healthy diet and routine for managing your blood sugar level. Having normal blood sugar can prevent you from many diseases including type 2 diabetes.


Q1. What does type 2 diabetes mean?
Type2 diabetes is a chronic disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way your body does. The body cells are not able to respond to insulin. People suffering from type 2 diabetes have insulin resistance.

Q2. Which is the worst type of diabetes?
Type 2 diabetes can be said as the worst type of diabetes. It can cause major health complications especially in the timing of blood vessels in kidneys and can also lead to kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes causes high blood sugar which can have harmful effects on your eyes and brain.


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